[Note: local pdf version is most updated.]
[Click here for a popular introduction of the new theory]
[Click here for a technical summary of the new theory]
[点击 这里参见新理论的中文简介]

A Robust CommunityBased Credit System to Enhance Peer Review in Scientific Research
[local PDF] [OpenReview.net] [OSF preprint]
Not about mirror matter theory itself. But we are in urgent need for a healthy academic ecosystem for further development of not only this new framework but also scientific research in general. So can’t help posting this article here.
abstract: Using an analogy with the capitalist economy, we examine the issues within modern basic science research as innovation drives both evolutionary cycles of the economy and research. In particular, we delve into the topics of peer review, academic monopolies and startups, the tenure system, and academic freedom in detail. To improve science research with a mature paradigm, a comprehensive solution is proposed, which involves implementing a credit system within a robust community structure for all scientists. Members can earn credit by contributing to the community through commenting, reviewing, and rating academic activities of submitted manuscripts, grant applications, and up to five achievements from each member. As members accumulate experience and credit, they can progress in their roles within the community, from commenter, reviewer, moderator, up to board member (serving in governing committees). Highachieving individuals are evaluated by the community for the quality, rather than the quantity, of their academic accomplishments. Highrisk, highreward projects from academic startups will be properly funded, and a healthy feedback and ecosystem will make the scientific community prosper in future innovative cycles in a selfsustaining way.

Neutron lifetime anomaly and mirror matter theory
[local PDF] [arXiv: 2302.07805] [OSF preprint] [viXra: 2301.0150] [Universe 2023, 9(4), 180]
In the spirit of open review, comments and responses during the late stage of the process are posted here, which should have been included but are unfortunately omitted in the online section of review reports published along with the paper by Universe:
[unofficial response to the inviting editor, later forwarded to the academic editor] –> [comments from the academic editor] –> [official response to editors and reviewers’ further comments]
Even the reviewers’ reports are not fully posted with full information in the online section. To be complete for open review, snapshots of the original reports including their ratings are shown below:
[Reviewer#1’s 1st round report] [Reviewer#1’s 2nd round report] [Reviewer#2’s 1st round report] [Reviewer#2’s 2nd round report] [Reviewer#3’s report]
abstract: This paper reviews the puzzles in modern neutron lifetime measurements and related unitarity issues in the CKM matrix. It is not a comprehensive and unbiased compilation of all historic data and studies, but rather a focus on compelling evidence leading to new physics. In particular, the largely overlooked nuances of different techniques applied in material and magnetic trap experiments are clarified. Further detailed analysis shows that the “beam” approach of neutron lifetime measurements is likely to give the “true” betadecay lifetime, while discrepancies in “bottle” measurements indicate new physics at play. The most feasible solution to these puzzles is a newly proposed ordinarymirror neutron (nn’) oscillation model under the framework of mirror matter theory. This phenomenological model is reviewed and introduced, and its explanations of the neutron lifetime anomaly and possible nonunitarity of the CKM matrix are presented. Most importantly, various new experimental proposals, especially lifetime measurements with small\slash narrow magnetic traps or under superstrong magnetic fields, are discussed in order to test the surprisingly large anomalous signals that are uniquely predicted by this new nn’ oscillation model.

Dimensional inflation of spacetime into a 4D mirrored universe
[local PDF] [arXiv: ] [OSF preprint]
a shorter essay based on the long version written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2023 Awards for Essays on Gravitation
abstract: Mirror symmetry, understood as local orientation symmetry, has been conjectured to allow two sectors of particles in our $4D$ universe. This idea is further developed by considering dimensional transitions of spacetime during the inflating early universe. Based on mathematical results from string theory, supersymmetric mirror models are constructed for spacetime of different dimensions to understand the early universe and black hole physics. Under 4D, dark matter is just “mirror matter” while dark energy originates in the nearlycanceled residual out of two gauge vacuum energies of the two sectors. The new framework is particularly intriguing as laboratory experiments are ready to test its unique prediction of neutral particle oscillations.

Mirror symmetry for new physics beyond the Standard Model in 4D spacetime
[local PDF] [arXiv: 2212.13121] [OSF preprint] [viXra: 2212.0157] [Symmetry 2023, 15(7), 1415]
abstract: The two discrete generators of the full Lorentz group O(1,3) in 4D spacetime are typically chosen to be parity inversion symmetry P and time reversal symmetry T, which are responsible for the four topologically separate components of O(1,3). Under general considerations of quantum field theory (QFT) with internal degrees of freedom, mirror symmetry is a natural extension of P, while CP symmetry resembles T in spacetime. In particular, mirror symmetry is critical as it doubles the full Dirac fermion representation in QFT and essentially introduces a new sector of mirror particles. Its close connection to Tduality and CalabiYau mirror symmetry in string theory is clarified. Extension beyond the Standard model can then be constructed using both left and righthanded heterotic strings guided by mirror symmetry. Many important implications such as supersymmetry, chiral anomalies, topological transitions, Higgs, neutrinos, and dark energy, are discussed.

Truly twodimensional black holes under dimensional transitions of spacetime
[local PDF] [arXiv: denied] [OSF preprint] [viXra: 2103.0200] [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 30, 2142020 (2021)]
Honorable Mention for Gravity Research Foundation 2021 Essay Competition
abstract: A sufficiently massive star in the end of its life will inevitably collapse into a black hole as more deconfined degrees of freedom make the core ever softer. One possible way to avoid the singularity in the end is by dimensional phase transition of spacetime. Indeed, the black hole interior, twodimensional in nature, can be described well as a perfect fluid of free massless Majorana fermions and gauge bosons under a 2d supersymmetric mirror model with new understanding of emergent gravity from dimensional evolution of spacetime. In particular, the 2d conformal invariance of the black hole gives rise to desired consistent results for the interior microphysics and structures including its temperature, density, and entropy.

First principles of consistent physics
[local PDF] [arXiv: denied] [OSF preprint] [viXra: 2103.0183]
abstract: For a consistent picture of fundamental physics and cosmology, three first principles are proposed as the foundations. That is, quantum variational principle that provides the formalism, consistent observation principle that set physical constraints and symmetries, and spacetime inflation principle that determines physical contents (particle fields and interactions). Under these three principles, a series of supersymmetric mirror models are constructed to study various phases of the universe at different spacetime dimensions and the dynamics between the phases. In particular, mirror symmetry, as the orientation symmetry of the underlying geometry, plays a critical role in the new framework.

Invisible decays of neutral hadrons
[local PDF] [arXiv:2006.10746] [OSF preprint] [viXra: 2006.0182]
abstract: Invisible decays of neutral hadrons are evaluated as ordinarymirror particle oscillations using the newly developed mirror matter model. Assuming equivalence of the CP violation and mirror symmetry breaking scales for neutral kaon oscillations, rather precise values of the mirror matter model parameters are predicted for such ordinarymirror particle oscillations. Not only do these parameter values satisfy the cosmological constraints, but they can also be used to precisely determine the oscillation or invisible decay rates of neutral hadrons. In particular, invisible decay branching fractions for relatively longlived hadrons such as \(K^0_L\), \(K^0_S\), \(\Lambda^0\), and \(\Xi^0\) due to such oscillations are calculated to be \(9.9\times 10^{6}\), \(1.8\times 10^{6}\), \(4.4\times 10^{7}\), and \(3.6\times 10^{8}\), respectively. These significant invisible decays are readily detectable at existing accelerator facilities.

From neutron and quark stars to black holes
[local PDF] [arXiv:denied] [OSF preprint] [viXra: 2003.0384]
abstract: New physics and models for the most compact astronomical objects – neutron / quark stars and black holes are proposed. Under the new supersymmetric mirror models, neutron stars at least heavy ones could be born from hot deconfined quark matter in the core with a mass limit less than \(2.5 M_\odot\). Even heavier cores will inevitably collapse into black holes as quark matter with more deconfined quark flavors becomes ever softer during the staged restoration of flavor symmetry. With new understanding of gravity as mean field theories emergent from the underlying quantum theories for providing the smooth background spacetime geometry for quantum particles, the black hole interior can be described well as a perfect fluid of free massless Majorana fermions and gauge bosons under the new genuine 2d model. In particular, the conformal invariance on a 2d torus for the black hole gives rise to desired consistent results for the interior microphysics and structures including its temperature, density, and entropy. Conjectures for further studies of the black hole and the early universe are also discussed in the new framework.

No single unification theory of everything
[local PDF] [FQXi Contest] [arXiv:2003.04687] [OSF preprint]
abstract: In light of Gödel’s undecidability results (incomplete theorems) for math, quantum indeterminism indicates that physics and the Universe may be indeterministic, incomplete, and open in nature, and therefore demand no single unification theory of everything. The Universe is dynamic and so are the underlying physical models and spacetime. As the 4d spacetime evolves dimension by dimension in the early universe, consistent yet different models emerge one by one with different sets of particles and interactions. A new set of first principles are proposed for building such models with new understanding of supersymmetry, mirror symmetry, and the dynamic phase transition mechanism – spontaneous symmetry breaking. Under this framework, we demonstrate that different models with no theory of everything operate in a hierarchical yet consistent way at different phases or scenarios of the Universe. In particular, the arrow of time is naturally explained and the Standard Model of physics is elegantly extended to time zero of the Universe.

Supersymmetric mirror models and dimensional evolution of spacetime
[local PDF] [arXiv: denied] [OSF preprint] [viXra: 2002.0262]
abstract: A dynamic view is conjectured for not only the universe but also the underlying theories in contrast to the convectional pursuance of a single unification theory. As the 4d spacetime evolves dimension by dimension via the spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism, supersymmetric mirror models consistently emerge one by one at different energy scales and scenarios involving different sets of particle species and interactions. Starting from random Planck fluctuations, the time dimension and its arrow are born in the time inflation process as the gravitational strength is weakened under a 1d model of a “timeron” scalar field. The “timeron” decay then starts the hot big bang and generates Majorana fermions and \(U(1)\) gauge bosons in 2d spacetime. The next spontaneous symmetry breaking results in two space inflaton fields leading to a double space inflation process and emergence of two decoupled sectors of ordinary and mirror particles. In fully extended 4d spacetime, the supersymmetric standard model with mirror matter before the electroweak phase transition and the subsequent pseudosupersymmetry model due to staged quark condensation as previously proposed are justified. A set of principles are postulated under this new framework. In particular, new understanding of the evolving supersymmetry and \(Z_2\) or generalized mirror symmetry is presented.

Dark energy and spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking
[local PDF] [arXiv:1908.11838] []
abstract: Dark energy is interpreted as the leftover of mostly canceled vacuum energy due to the spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking (SMSB) at the electroweak phase transition. Based on the newly proposed mirrormatter model (M^{3}), the extended standard model with mirror matter (SM^{3}) is elaborated to provide a consistent foundation for understanding dark energy, dark matter, baryogenesis, and many other puzzles. New insights of Higgs, top quark, and lepton masses are presented under SM^{3} using staged quark condensation and fourfermion interactions for SMSB. In particular, the nature and mass scales of neutrinos are naturally explained under the new theory. The new cosmology model based on SM^{3} could potentially resolve the Hubble tension and other cosmic enigmas. The possible underlying principles for SMSB and SM^{3} of a maximally interacting, supersymmetric, and mirrored world are also discussed.

Laboratory tests of the ordinarymirror particle oscillations and the extended CKM matrix
[local PDF] [arXiv:1906.10262] []
abstract: The CKM matrix and its unitarity is analyzed by disentangling experimental information obtained from three different particle systems of neutrons, mesons, and nuclei. New physics beyond the Standard Model is supported under the new analysis. In particular, the newly proposed mirrormatter model [Phys. Lett. B 797, 134921 (2019)] can provide the missing physics and naturally extend the CKM matrix. Laboratory experiments with current best technology for measuring neutron, meson, and nuclear decays under various scenarios are proposed. Such measurements can provide stringent tests of the new model and the extended CKM matrix.

Kaon oscillations and baryon asymmetry of the universe
[local PDF] [arXiv:1904.03835] [Phys. Rev. D 100, 063537 (2019)]
abstract: Baryon asymmetry of the universe (BAU) can likely be explained with \(K^0K^{0′}\) oscillations of a newly developed mirrormatter model and new understanding of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase transitions. A consistent picture for the origin of both BAU and dark matter is presented with the aid of \(nn’\) oscillations of the new model. The global symmetry breaking transitions in QCD are proposed to be staged depending on condensation temperatures of strange, charm, bottom, and top quarks in the early universe. The longstanding BAU puzzle could then be understood with \(K^0K^{0′}\) oscillations that occur at the stage of strange quark condensation and baryon number violation via a nonperturbative sphaleronlike (coined “quarkiton”) process. Similar processes at charm, bottom, and top quark condensation stages are also discussed including an interesting idea for top quark condensation to break both the QCD global \(U_t(1)_A\) symmetry and the electroweak gauge symmetry at the same time. Meanwhile, the \(U(1)_A\) or strong \(CP\) problem of particle physics is addressed with a possible explanation under the same framework.

Neutronmirror neutron oscillations for solving the puzzles of ultrahighenergy cosmic rays
[local PDF] [arXiv:1903.07474] []
abstract: Based on a newly proposed mirrormatter model of neutronmirror neutron (\(nn’\)) oscillations, the puzzles related to ultrahighenergy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are explained. In particular, the phenomena around the GreisenZatsepinKuzmin (GZK) cutoff for UHECRs can be well understood under the new mirror matter model assuming a mirrortoordinary temperature ratio of \(T’/T \sim 0.3\). The suppression factor of the GZK effect due to the opacity of cosmic microwave background is calculated and agrees with the observations well. Most of the superGZK events (i.e., above the GZK cutoff), as predicted in the new model, come from mirror matter sources that are invisible to electromagnetic telescopes and can penetrate the mirror cosmic microwave background at much further distances. Most remarkably, the anticorrelation between superGZK and subGZK events in the hotspot observed by the Telescope Array (TA) collaboration can be naturally understood in this model. The possible correlations between the UHECRs from the TA hotspot and other nearby powerful sources such as high energy neutrinos detected by IceCube, the largest black hole merger (GW170729) observed by LIGO, and the hottest starforming supercluster Lynx Arc, are discussed as well under the new theory.

Neutronmirror neutron oscillations in stars
[local PDF] [arXiv:1902.03685] []
abstract: Based on a newly proposed mirrormatter model of neutronmirror neutron (\(nn’\)) oscillations, evolution and nucleosynthesis in single stars under a new theory is presented. The new theory with the new \(nn’\) model can demonstrate the evolution in a much more convincing way than the conventional belief. In particular, many observations in stars show strong support for the new theory and the new \(nn’\) model. For example, progenitor mass limits and structures for white dwarfs and neutron stars, two different types of core collapse supernovae (IIP and IIL), synthesis of heavy elements, pulsating phenomena in stars, etc, can all be easily and naturally explained under the new theory.

Neutron oscillations for solving neutron lifetime and dark matter puzzles
[local PDF] [arXiv: 1902.01837] [Phys. Lett. B 797, 134921 (2019)]
abstract: A model of \(nn’\) (neutronmirror neutron) oscillations is proposed under the framework of the mirror matter theory with slightly broken mirror symmetry. It resolves the neutron lifetime discrepancy, i.e., the 1% difference in neutron lifetime between measurements from “beam” and “bottle” experiments. In consideration of the early universe evolution, the \(nn’\) mass difference is determined to be about \(2\times 10^{6}\) eV/c\(^2\) with the \(nn’\) mixing strength of about \(2\times 10^{5}\). The picture of how the mirrortoordinary matter density ratio is evolved in the early universe into the observed darktobaryon matter density ratio of about 5.4 is presented. Reanalysis of previous data and new experiments that can be carried out under current technology are discussed and recommended to test this proposed model. Other consequences of the model on astrophysics and possible oscillations of other neutral particles are discussed as well.